How to innovate learning and exams?

How to innovate learning and exams?
How to innovate learning and exams?


The 2025 high school graduation exam according to the 2018 general education program is expected to have 4 subjects. Among them, 2 compulsory subjects: math and literature; 2 subjects students choose from: foreign language, history, geography, physics, chemistry, biology, information technology, technology, economic education and law.

This year’s 11th grade students will be the first batch of candidates to take the high school graduation exam according to the new plan

Thus, the number of exam subjects and the fact that students know in advance which exam subjects they will take is completely similar to the high school exam more than 40 years ago. However, the 4-subject exam in 2025 has many new points (there are 36 ways to choose exam subjects, instead of 4 combinations as before) and the requirements to be met are qualities and abilities, not knowledge and skills. power as before. Therefore, it is necessary to make synchronous changes in vocational education, teaching and learning perspectives, and university admission to a new level.

The 2018 GDT Program has the goal of developing students according to their qualities and abilities. General Education is divided into two stages: basic education (elementary and middle school) and career orientation (high school level). At the high school level, students are differentiated according to their aptitude and career orientation through the form of self-selection using many combinations. In addition to 8 compulsory educational subjects/activities (math, literature, foreign languages, history, physical education, defense and security education, local education, experiential activities – career guidance), students You can choose 4 additional subjects from among the subjects (geography, physics, chemistry, biology, information technology, technology, economic and legal education, fine arts, music).

This requires students to know the abilities, competencies, talents, and career trends that are suitable for them in the future in order to choose the most suitable subjects and graduation exam subjects. Therefore, experiential education and career guidance at the middle and high school levels are very important, including learning and career guidance.

In particular, the learning direction is to help learners develop learning methods and choose subjects at the middle and high school levels that are most suitable for each individual student. Career guidance is to help learners have the ability to evaluate themselves to choose a suitable field or profession in the future.

Proposed 4-subject high school graduation exam: How to innovate learning and testing? - Photo 2.

Candidates take the high school graduation exam in 2023. From 2025, the high school graduation exam will be innovated to match the 2018 GDT Program.


It is necessary to affirm that the roles of subjects contributing to student success are the same, there are no main subjects or minor subjects. Some instrumental subjects such as math, literature, foreign languages ​​or history play a big role in patriotic education and are compulsory subjects. However, the success of many students when they are born can be in other subjects, not just compulsory subjects.

The school must focus on teaching and learning all subjects, not giving importance to this subject and disregarding that subject. In fact, nearly 40% of students take the graduation exam for the purpose of graduation, so subjects such as technology, economic and legal education, information technology… are very necessary for students participating in vocational training or direct training. work after high school.


University enrollment from 2025 must change compared to today. On the one hand, strengthen competency assessment tests, on the other hand, build new complexes with subjects such as information technology, technology, economic education and law; or admission based on transcripts requires comprehensive evaluation, at least the results of 4 or 5 high school semesters. Subject combinations with foreign languages ​​or history need to increase targets, giving priority to international foreign language certificates…

Innovate teaching, testing, and evaluation of all subjects. Innovate perspectives on learning. Studying is not to deal with teachers or study for exams (you learn whatever the test takes), but to develop qualities and abilities, to learn to be human, to compete for jobs with artificial intelligence, which has been replacing many professions. Foreign language plays an important role in international integration. In order for our country to participate more effectively in the global value chain, we should focus on developing all four skills for students: listening, speaking, reading, writing, according to standards. Vietnam’s 6-level skills. Foreign language certificates according to Vietnamese standards should be given priority in university admission like international certificates, so that foreign language teaching in high schools can compete with international certificate teaching centers. Strongly innovate the teaching and learning of history rather than being subjective. It is a mandatory subject so students must learn it no matter how they teach it.

Exam in 4 subjects according to the board more than 40 years ago

The 4-subject high school graduation exam method has been applied in our country for a long time. After 1975, in the South, a 12-year education system with high school (high school) divisions was implemented. Accordingly, students can choose one of the following 4 divisions: Division A (literature – history – geography), Division B (literature – foreign languages), Division C (math – physics), Division D (chemistry – biology). Students in all departments study all subjects, but the content of knowledge and time spent studying each subject are different, depending on the department.

The high school graduation exam consists of 4 subjects for each department. Board A (exam in 4 subjects: math, literature, history, geography); Board B (math, literature, foreign languages, history), Board C (math, literature, physics, chemistry), Board D (math, literature, chemistry, biology). Both math and literature are tested in all departments, but the level of difficulty of the exam varies depending on the department.

The 4-subject graduation exam in the South as above was carried out in the period 1976 – 1980. After the high school graduation exam, the university entrance exam is divided into 3 blocks: A (math, physics, chemistry), B (math, chemistry, biology). ), C (literature, history, geography). The highlight of the high school graduation exam during this period is that the examination and grading are very serious, there is no extra teaching or learning, the school only conducts exam review for students in a few sessions. By grade 12, students know in advance and prepare to focus more on graduation and university entrance exams (if they register to take the exam). Graduation and university entrance exams are all essay-based, covering the subjects math, physics, chemistry, and biology, in addition to the theory part, there is also a math problem solving part.

The limitation in the 4-subject high school graduation exam in the period 1976 – 1980 was that it was an essay exam, heavy on testing knowledge, so students often had to learn by heart, sometimes having to memorize grade 12 textbooks, following the method Reciting the lesson. Some students in group C (graduation exam in math, literature, physics, chemistry), but take the university entrance exam in block B (math, chemistry, biology), on the contrary, there are students in group D (math, literature, chemistry, biology) but take the exam. University block A (math, physics, chemistry), is due to choosing the wrong department.

To avoid learning bias

The Ministry of Education and Training proposed a plan to organize the high school graduation exam from 2025 with 4 subjects, most teachers found reasonable, but still expected the Ministry to calculate some points.

Polling the opinions of 11th grade students, the first batch that will take the high school graduation exam under the new program from next year, we found that most of them agreed with the plan of fewer subjects. Currently, they have been studying a combination of elective subjects with career orientation according to the 2018 GDT Program. Therefore, it is important for them to wish to take a few subjects, mainly subjects according to their chosen direction. Naturally.

However, with the 4-subject exam plan, in the long run there will be consequences. That is why students will learn incorrectly right from the moment they register for grade 10. The situation of over-emphasizing one subject and overlooking another is unavoidable. Therefore, how should the Ministry of Education and Training consider graduation requirements based on transcript scores? What is the ratio between transcripts and test scores?

Not requiring foreign language exams will partly reduce students’ motivation when studying this subject. So the Ministry needs to find a way to encourage students.

Currently, localities and schools use many different sets of textbooks. There are even schools that compile their own documents. This requires precision and fairness from the Ministry of Education and Training in setting the questions. How closely will the test follow the requirements to be met? Who will be involved in the preparation process?…

Ngoc Tuan

The article is in Vietnamese

Tags: innovate learning exams


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